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会员成果 | 王立新:文化能否成为软实力:关于美国对外文化输出的历史考察(下)

更新时间  2020-07-03 作者:王立新 录入:laogao 阅读

王立新:文化能否成为软实力:关于美国对外文化输出的历史考察(下) 

文化能否成为软实力:

关于美国对外文化输出的历史考察(下)

会员成果 | 王立新:文化能否成为软实力:关于美国对外文化输出的历史考察(下)

会员成果 | 王立新:文化能否成为软实力:关于美国对外文化输出的历史考察(下)

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[49] Statement by Ben M. Cherrington, in General Advisory Committee to the Division of Cultural Relations, Minutes, Nov. 21, 1938. 转引自Frank Ninkovich, “Cultural Relations and American China Policy, 1942-1945,” Pacific Historical Review, Vol. 49, No. 3, August 1980, p.473.

[50]Memorandum by Ben M.Cherrington, May 27, 1940. 转引自Frank A. Ninkovich, Diplomacy of Ideas: U.S. Foreign Policy and Cultural Relations, 1938-1950. New York: Cambridge University Press, 1981, p.35.

[51] Charles A. Thomson, “The Cultural-Relations Program of the Department of State,” Journal of Educational Sociology, Vol. 16, No. 3, Nov. 1942, p.135.

[52] Charles A. Thomson, “The Role of Cultural Exchange in Wartime,” Address Delivered before the American Political Science Association, New York, N.Y., December 31, 1941, Departmrnt of State Bulletin, Vol.6, No.132, Jan. 3, 1942, p.30.

[53]Hull, “The Division of Cultural Relations of the Department of State,” in Hanke, ed., Handbook of Latin American Studies, pp.503-504.

[54] Ben M. Cherrington, “Ten Years After,” Association of American Colleges Bulletin, Vol.34, Dec. 1948, p. 5. 转引自:Mulcahy, “Cultural Diplomacy and the Exchange Programs: 1938-1978,” Journal of Arts Management, Law & Society, Vol. 29, No.1, Spring 1999, p.14.

[55]Minutes of Meeting of Feb.23-24, 1943, General Advisory Committee, Division of Cultural Relations, Department of State, April 1943, pp.9,17-18. CU History Files.

[56] Kramer, “Is the World Our Campus? International Students and U.S. Global Power in the Long Twentieth Century,” Diplomatic History, Vol. 33, No. 5, Nov. 2009, p.800.

[57]成员包括:纽约城市学院教育系前主任、国际教育协会主席斯蒂芬·达甘,著名国际主义者、哥伦比亚大学教授詹姆斯·肖特维尔(James T. Shotwell),美国广播教育委员会主席约翰·史蒂倍克(John W. Studebaker)和杰出图书馆学家、美国图书馆协会主席卡尔·米拉姆(Carl H. Milam)。

[58]Minutes of Meeting of Feb.23-24, 1943, General Advisory Committee, Division of Cultural Relations, Department of State, April 1943, pp.9,17-18. CU History Files.

[59]Charles Frankel, The Neglected Aspect of Foreign Affairs: Educational and Cultural Policy Abroad, Washington: The Brookings Institution, 1966, pp.88-89.

[60]Joan Channick, “The Artist as Cultural Diplomat,” American Theater, Vol.22, No.5, May/June 2005, p.4.

[61]US Department of State, Cultural Diplomacy: The Linchpin of Public Diplomacy, pp.4-5.

[62]Jonathan McClory, The Soft Power 30: A Global Ranking of Soft Power 2018, Portland Communications Ltd and The USC Center on Public Diplomacy, 2018, p.50. https://softpower30.com/wp-content/uploads/2018/07/The-Soft-Power-30-Report-2018.pdf(2018年12月15日获取)

[63] 容闳:《西学东渐记》,走向世界丛书,钟叔河主编,岳麓书社1985年版,第61-62页。

[64] Christopher S. Wern, “How Far Will De Klerk Go?” New York Times, Nov.19, 1989. https://www.nytimes.com/1989/11/19/magazine/how-far-will-de-klerk-go.html(2018年12月6日获取)

[65]曾长期在苏联和东欧国家从事文化外交工作的美国新闻署前官员耶尔·里士满(Yale Richmond)通过采访当事人撰写的《文化交流与冷战》,展示了美苏之间的教育与文化交流如何改变了苏联人的观念,瓦解了苏联的意识形态和政治制度,最终使美国获得冷战的胜利。Yale Richmond, Cultural Exchange and the Cold War:Raising the Iron Curtain, University Park, Penn.: The Pennsylvania State University Press, 2003.

[66]Richmond, Cultural Exchange and the Cold War: Raising the Iron Curtain, p.29.

[67]Oleg Kalugin, The First Directorate: My 32 Years in Intelligence and Espionage against the West, New York: St. Martin’s Press, 1994, pp. 32. 转引自Richmond ,Cultural Exchange and the Cold War: Raising the Iron Curtain, p.34.

[68] Yale Richmond ,“Cultural Exchange and the Cold War: How the West Won,” American Communist History, Vol. 9, No. 1, 2010, p.66.

[69] Reinhold Wagnleitner, “The Empire of Fun, or Talkin' Soviet Union Blues: The Sound of Freedom and U.S. Cultural Hegemony in Europe,” Diplomatic History, Vol.23, No.3,Summer 1999, p. 506.

[70] Allen H. Kassof, ‘‘Scholarly Exchanges and the Collapse of Communism,’’ Soviet and Post-Soviet Review, Vol.22, No. 3,1995, pp. 263-274. 转引自:Richmond ,“Cultural Exchange and the Cold War: How the West Won,” American Communist History, Vol. 9, No. 1, 2010, p.64.

[71]Walter Wanger, “OWI and Motion Pictures, ” The Public Opinion Quarterly, Vol. 7, No. 1, Spring 1943, pp.110,109.

[72]Nye, Soft Power:The Means to Success in World Politics, p.17.

[73] 保罗·科恩:《1900年以前的基督教传教活动及其影响》,费正清主编:《剑桥中国晚清史》,中国社会科学院历史研究所译,中国社会科学出版社1985年版,上卷,第617页。

[74] Michael L. Krenn, “‘Unfinished Business’: Segregation and U.S. Diplomacy at the 1958 World’s Fair,” Diplomatic History, Vol. 20, No.4, Fall 1996, p.591.

[75]2004年发布的九·一一恐怖袭击调查委员会最后报告称本·拉登在思想上“严重依赖埃及作家萨义德·库特布”,正是对库特布思想的接受使本·拉登和他的追随者相信为了捍卫自己的信仰,对平民进行大规模杀戮是合理和符合正义的。National Commission on Terrorist Attacks Upon the United States, The 9/11 Commission Report, July 22, 2004, p.51. https://9-11commission.gov/report/911Report.pdf(2018年12月26日获取)

[76] “反向软实力”是丹麦奥尔堡大学(Aalborg University)的拉斯马斯·伯特尔森教授提出的。参见Rasmus G. Bertelsen, “American Missionary Universities in China and the Middle East and American Philanthropy: Interacting Soft Power of Transnational Actors,” Global Society, Vol.28, No.1, Jan. 2014.

[77]Earl Herbert Cressy, “Converting the Missionary”, Asia, Vol.19, No.6, June 1919, pp.553-556.

[78] 详见王立新:《踌躇的霸权:美国崛起后的身份困惑与秩序追求(1913-1945)》,北京:中国社会科学出版社2015年版,第440-444页;Stephen G. Craft, “Peace Makers in China: American Missionaries and the Sino-Japanese War, 1937-1941,” Journal of Church and State, Vol. 41, No.3, Summer 1999, pp.575-591.

本期编辑:南京大学团队

编 审:张勇安

中国美国史研究会 联系信箱:ahrachina@163.com